School Age


Parents & Caregivers

Parents and Caregivers

Princeton Speech-Language & Learning Center believes continuing education is vital in order to provide our clients with the most effective treatments available. We also feel strongly about sharing what we have learned with parents and professionals in the community.

We hope this “Parent Center” will serve as an online resource for current information about communication and language-based learning disorders – ranging from tips for parents to information about advanced therapies.

Please check back often as we expect to regularly update this section with new links, book recommendations and other timely information.

Our brochures are available to download in the Resources section. You will also find some helpful links in the Resources section.

Below is a sample of our literature.

Speech Development (Articulation) Milestones

Every child develops differently, but the following milestones can help you determine whether your child’s speech is developing an appropriate level for his or her age. If you have concerns about your child’s speech, please complete this form or call us at (609) 924-7080 to set up a consultation.

12 - 18 months old

  • Uses most vowels and consonants in jargon (jargon sounds like speech, but contains no real words)
  • Omits final consonants and some initial consonants
  • Has a few real words, but basically speech cannot be understood

18 - 24 months old

  • Uses more words than jargon
  • Listeners can understand approximately 65% of what a child says by 24 months old
  • Starting to say words with beginning and ending sound (for example, “pop”)

2 - 2 1/2 years old

  • Others can understand approximately 70% of what they say
  • May omit final consonant, substitute one consonant for another, or reduce consonant blends

2 1/2 - 3 years old

  • Continues to improve intelligibility; others now can understand approximately 80% of what they say
  • Masters the consonants p, m, n, w, h

3 - 3 1/2 years old

  • Speech continues to become easier for others to understand; sounding more mature
  • Uses final consonants most of the time

3 1/2 - 4 years old

  • Speech is becoming very easy to understand
  • Masters the consonants b, d, k, g, f, y

5 years old

  • Uses all speech sounds correctly with the possible exceptions of t, v, l, th, j, z, and zh

Reading and Writing Milestone by Grade Level

Every child develops differently, but the following milestones can help you determine whether your child is gaining reading and writing skills at an appropriate level for his or her age. If you have concerns about your child’s reading and writing, please complete this form or call us at (609) 924-7080 to set up a consultation.

By the end of Kindergarten:

  • Reading Skills:
    • Understands that a book reads from left to right
    • Identifies rhyming words, compares, and matches words based on their sounds
    • Understands that letters are represented by individual sounds
    • Identifies upper and lowercase letters
    • Imitates reading a book by looking at the pictures and talking about the story
  • Writing Skills:
    • Prints first and last name
    • Draws a picture that tells a story and writes simply about the story
    • Writes some upper and lowercase letters

By the end of First Grade:

  • Reading Skills:
    • Creates rhyming words
    • Identifies all sounds in a simple word
    • Matches spoken words to print
    • Sounds out words when reading
    • Reads 100 common sight words
  • Writing Skills:
    • Expresses ideas through simple writing
    • Prints legibly
    • Spells frequently used words correctly
    • Begins each sentence with a capital letter

By the end of Second Grade:

  • Reading Skills:
    • Has fully mastered phonics/sound correspondence
    • Uses phonics strategies when reading
    • Recognizes many words by sight
    • Re-reads and self-corrects
    • Explains key elements of the story
    • Identifies and uses spelling patterns in words when reading
  • Writing Skills:
    • Writes legibly
    • Uses a variety of sentence types
    • Organizes writing to have a beginning, middle and end
    • Progresses from spelling by sound to more accurate spelling

By the end of Third Grade:

  • Reading Skills:
    • Demonstrates full knowledge of basic phonics patterns
    • Uses clues from the story to help understand what is read
    • Predicts and summarizes stories
    • Compares and contrast stories
    • Re-reads and corrects errors as they read
  • Writing Skills:
    • Plans, organizes and edits writing
    • Includes good details in stories
    • Writes in cursive
    • Demonstrates other types of writing including letters, simple reports, and summaries

By the end of Fourth Grade:

  • Reading Skills:
    • Reads for specific purposes
    • Follows written directions
    • Takes short notes
    • Links information learned to different subjects
    • Learns meanings of new words through knowledge of word origins, synonyms, and multiple meanings
    • Uses reference materials
    • Makes inferences and paraphrases content
  • Writing Skills:
    • Writes effective narratives and explanations with several paragraphs
    • Develops an organized plan for writing
    • Edits writing for grammar, punctuation, and spelling

By the end of Fifth Grade:

  • Reading Skills:
    • Learns meanings of new words through prefixes, suffixes and root words
    • Reads a variety of literature, describes character development, and plot
    • Describes poetry
    • Uses reference materials to support opinions
  • Writing Skills:
    • Writes for a variety of purposes
    • Uses detailed vocabulary
    • Varies sentence structure
    • Revises writing for clarity
    • Edits final copies

Let’s discuss how we can help. Schedule an appointment today. Call (609) 924-7080, email or contact us online.

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